Penn State Altoona offers a diverse selection of lecture, laboratory, and field biological science courses for students majoring in the sciences and general education courses for the non-science majors. Courses marked with * are disallowed for biology majors.
Detailed course descriptions can be viewed in the University Bulletin.
BIOL 110: Biology—Basic Concepts and Biodiversity (4) (GN)
A study of the evolution of the major groups of organisms including the fundamental concepts of biology. Fall and spring semester.
BIOL 120N: Plants, Places, and People (3) (INTERDOMAIN;GH;GN;US;IL)
Students learn about plants from the perspective of sustainability, agriculture, food, genetics, textiles, and medicine, across history and around the globe, after spending a few weeks learning about basic plant biology. Students engage with a group project in collaboration with other students to deepen their understanding and appreciation of plant biological and historical connections with human civilization. Students share these projects with the class in a peer-teaching and learning exercise in the final weeks of class. Spring semester.
BIOL 127: Introduction to Plant Biology (3) (GN)
Cellular structure and organization; physiological processes; classification; reproduction and development; relationship of plant groups. Students who have passed BIOL 240W may not schedule this course. Spring semester.
BIOL 133: Genetics and Evolution of the Human Species (3) (GN)
Human heredity and evolution, individual and social implications. The course is for non-majors; students who have passed BIOL 222 or BIOL 230W or any upper-division biology course may not schedule this course. Fall and spring semesters.
BIOL 129: Mammalian Anatomy (4) (GN)
Anatomy of a mammal, with special reference to that of man. Students who have passed BIOL 421 may not schedule this course. (Generally offered every semester)
BIOL 141: Introductory Physiology (3) (GN)
Explanation of the normal structure and function of the animal body, with special emphasis on human body systems. Students who have passed BIOL 472 may not schedule this course. (Generally offered every semester)
BIOL 142: Physiology Laboratory (1)
Experiments demonstrating basic physiological principles, with special reference to man. Prerequisite: or concurrent: BIOL 141 (Generally offered every semester)
Beginning Fall 2019: BIOL 129, BIOL 141, and BIOL 142 are being replaced by BIOL 161, BIOL 162, BIOL 163, and BIOL 164
BIOL 161: Human Anatomy and Physiology I – Lecture (3) (GN)
This is the first lecture course of a two-semester sequence introducing human anatomy and physiology, which is the branch of biology that focuses on the structure and function of the human body. Lectures will take a "systemic" approach to anatomy and physiology, focusing on one body system at a time. Topics covered in the Human Anatomy & Physiology (A&P) I Lecture include: basic anatomical and directional terminology; fundamental concepts and principles of cell biology; histology; the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems; special senses, and the endocrine system. Each unit will build on previous knowledge to establish a cohesive picture of the human body. Throughout the course, students will build a strong foundation in the form and function of the human body from the cellular to the gross anatomical level. This knowledge will be contextualized by incorporating information about clinical cases, personal health and lifestyle choices, and human development. Fall and spring semesters.
BIOL 162: Human Anatomy and Physiology I - Laboratory (1) (GN)
This is the first laboratory course of a two-semester sequence introducing human anatomy and physiology. The A&P I laboratory complements the A&P I lecture by providing students with hands-on experiences such as examination of preserved specimens and anatomical models, and performing physiological experiments. Topics covered in the Human Anatomy & Physiology I Laboratory include: anatomic orientation and terminology; the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system; special senses; skeletal system and muscular system. Prerequisite or concurrent: BIOL 161. Fall and spring semesters.
BIOL 163: Human Anatomy and Physiology II - Lecture (3) (GN)
This is the second lecture course of a two-semester sequence introducing human anatomy and physiology, which is the branch of biology that focuses on the structure and function of the human body. Lectures will take a "systemic" approach to anatomy and physiology, focusing on one body system at a time. Topics covered in the Human Anatomy & Physiology (A&P) II Lecture include: the cardiovascular system, lymphatic and immune systems, respiratory system, digestive system, metabolism, urinary system, and reproductive system. Each unit will build on previous knowledge to establish a cohesive picture of the human body. Throughout the course, students will build a strong foundation in the form and function of the human body from the cellular to the gross anatomical level. This knowledge will be contextualized by incorporating information about clinical cases, personal health and lifestyle choices, and human development. Prerequisite: BIOL 161. Fall and spring semesters.
BIOL 164: Human Anatomy and Physiology II - Laboratory (1) (GN)
This is the second laboratory course of a two-semester sequence introducing human anatomy and physiology. The A&P II laboratory complements the A&P II lecture by providing students with hands-on experiences such as examination of preserved specimens and anatomical models, and performing physiological experiments. Topics covered in the Human Anatomy & Physiology II Laboratory include: the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, urinary system, and reproductive system. Prerequisite or concurrent: BIOL 163. Fall and spring semesters.
BIOL 155: Introduction to the Biology of Aging (3) (GN)
Examination of human aging from a biological perspective. Population demographics, physiological and pathological changes, and healthy lifestyles are discussed. Students who have passed BIOL 409 may not schedule this course. Fall semester.
BIOL 220W: BIOLOGY: POPULATIONS AND COMMUNITIES (4) (GN)
It introduces students to the fundamental ecological principles, concepts, patterns, and processes regarding populations, communities, and ecosystems. This course provides students with a foundation of ecological science, as well demonstrating linkages between ecology, population genetics, and evolution. The course objectives are the same as those described in the original course proposal and are to provide students with a fundamental understanding of: l) genetic processes within populations of living things, 2) evolutionary processes involved in speciation, 3) dynamic interactions of organisms within and among populations, especially pertaining to energy cycles, various biogeochemical cycles, predator-prey interactions, and the like, and 4) distribution patterns of living organisms and the need to conserve the resources of the earth. (BIOL 220W, 230W, and 240W each carry only 1 credit of "writing"; all three courses must be taken to meet the writing requirement.) Prerequisite: BIOL 110. Spring semester.
BIOL 222: Genetics (3)
Variation and heredity in bacteria, plants, and animals; relationships of genetic knowledge to evolution and breeding practices. Students should have at least 3 credits of biological sciences before scheduling this course. In this course, we will discuss chromosome structure; mitosis and meiosis, in particular their application of the transmission of DNA; principles of Mendelian inheritance; structure and function of DNA, RNA, and proteins; gene expression; DNA mutations and chromosome changes; genomics; population genetics and the intersection of genetics and society. The course will include multimedia presentations, textbook readings, problem-solving and homework, in-class activities and discussions of science and society. Prerequisite: BIOL 110 or MICRB 201 or BIOL 141 or BIOL 133. Spring semester.
BIOL 230W: Biology—Molecules and Cells (4) (GN)
The goal of this course is to provide an understanding of the major unifying principles of life as they apply to the study of the molecular mechanisms underpinning the function of living organisms. Through the lab, students are expected to become proficient in the interpretation and presentation of experimental results through written and oral reports. Taken together with the other core courses in the biology curriculum (BIOL 110, BIOL 22OW, BIOL 24OW), BIOL 23OW will help students to integrate concepts ranging from molecular and cellular events through principles governing entire populations and ecosystems. Further, BIOL 23OW provides the foundation on which students further their study of molecular genetics - a discipline integral to a number of the biological sciences. (BIOL 220W, 230W, and 240W each carry only 1 credit of "writing"; all three courses must be taken to meet the writing requirement.) Prerequisite: BIOL 110 (CHEM 110 recommended). Fall semester.
BIOL 240W: Biology—Function and Development of Organisms (4) (GN)
A study of development and physiological processes at the organismic level. This course provides an understanding of the major unifying principles as they apply to the study of the development and physiological mechanisms utilized by organisms from both animals and plants. In lecture a comparative approach will be taken in the examination of reproduction, development, and physiology primarily at the organismal level. In laboratory, experimental, investigations of both animal and plant systems will reinforce the concepts covered in lecture. Through the lab, students are expected to become proficient in the interpretation and presentation of experimental results through written and oral reports. Taken together with the other core courses in the biology curriculum (BIOL 110, BIOL 22OW, BIOL 23OW), BIOL 24OW will help students to integrate concepts ranging from molecular and cellular events through principles governing entire populations and ecosystems. Further, BIOL 24OW provides the foundation on which students further their study of animal physiology and development. (BIOL 220W, 230W, and 240W each carry only 1 credit of "writing"; all three courses must be taken to meet the writing requirement.) Prerequisite: BIOL 110 and CHEM 110. Spring semester.
BIOL 261: Reading Seminar in the Health Professions (1)
Students will read and discuss 3 to 4 books of creative nonfiction that address issues in the health professions. These may include collections of reflective essays from health professionals, historical narratives of diseases or conditions, biographies, collections of case studies, exposé, memoirs, or other formats. Topics may include disease transmission, ethics, patience care, health care, diseases, historical events, or other relevant topics. In addition, students will read and discuss primary scientific literature and news articles on topics related to their book readings. Students must attend and participate in weekly discussion and complete online writing assignments. Spring semester.
BIOL 296: Independent Studies (1 -18)
BIOL 297: Special Topics (1 - 9)
BIOL 412: Ecology of Infectious Diseases (3)
This course consists of the study of infectious diseases and the evolutionary and ecological adaptations that have allowed for the emergence of microorganisms as pathogens. Prerequisite: BIOL 220W. Alternate fall semesters
BIOL 413: Cell Signaling and Regulation (3)
This course examines the mechanisms cells employ to communicate with each other through extracellular signaling molecules (e.g., hormones and neurotransmitters). Classes will consist of formal lectures as well as student-led reviews of pertinent primary literature. Subject matter will consider a wide variety of cellular signaling mechanisms, including discussions of receptors, G-proteins, protein kinase cascades, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis. Prerequisite: BIOL 230W. Alternate spring semesters.
BIOL 414: Taxonomy of Vascular Plants (3)
Vascular plants are the dominant life forms of terrestrial habitats and there are approximately 260,000 species world-wide. In Pennsylvania, we have approximately 3000 species. Plant identification is essential to understanding our natural heritage for the professional biologist as well as for anyone who loves the outdoors. In Biology 414, we learn the characteristics of the major plant groups and families learn to use dichotomous keys to identify the more common species, and study current concepts of plant systematics and phylogenetics and their application to evolutionary relationships among the families of flowering plants. Several field trips are scheduled early in the semester. A plant collection and a research paper on a plant taxon are required. Prerequisite: BIOL 240W. Fall semester.
BIOL 416: Biology of Cancer (3)
Biology of Cancer is designed to illustrate basic aspects of cancer development, and to discuss how molecular genetic approaches can be used to reveal fundamental processes of carcinogenesis. Such molecular cellular and genetic information has been instrumental in devising strategies for prevention, detection, and treatment of cancer. Prerequisite: BIOL 222 or 230W. Alternate spring semesters.
BIOL 417: Invertebrate Zoology (4)
Over 98% of all animal life is invertebrate animals. This laboratory course provides a broad survey of invertebrate animals. The course focuses on the evolutionary relationships between and within the 30+ animal phyla. Invertebrate ecology, anatomy, physiology, development, and behavior as well as environmental and medical issues related to invertebrates are emphasized in lecture. The laboratory provides a survey of major animal phyla and the diversity within them. Many dissections are performed to compare form and function between groups. Field trips to collect invertebrates in various habitats and to museums are part of the course as well. Prerequisite: BIOL 110. Alternate fall semesters.
BIOL 421 or VBSC 421: Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates (4)
The study of vertebrate anatomy from an evolutionary and developmental perspective. They will become familiar with important structures, terminology and function; a basic requirement of the biomedical sciences. Comparisons between representative vertebrate groups (including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals) will be used to illustrate structural adaptations of each organ system from an evolutionary perspective. Specific examples comparing ancestral and descendant species will demonstrate the relationships between the lifestyle of an organism and the morphology of homologous structures. A study of early embryonic development, differentiation of primary germ layers and organ formation will provide a basis for understanding organ structure and function. Laboratory activities will involve work with preserved specimens and will focus heavily on anatomic structure identification and function. Topics include anatomic directional terminology, vertebrate classification systems, early embryonic development and a detailed examination of the various organ systems. Specimens are selected to illustrate the anatomy of ancestral vertebrate species, the evolutionary changes observed in descendant species and the association of morphology with lifestyle. Although students will invest the majority of their time becoming familiar with the anatomy of a representative mammal (the cat), multiple species will be examined, and students will be expected to recognize selected anatomic structures in each species studied. Prerequisite: BIOL 129 or BIOL 141 or BIOL 220W or BIOL 230W or 240W. Alternate spring semesters.
BIOL 422 ADVANCED GENETICS (3)
Now is an exciting time for evolutionary, quantitative, and disease genetics. Increasingly sophisticated technologies are making it possible to obtain dense genomic data from large numbers of individuals from a variety of taxa. Such data permits the evaluation of processes that have generated genetic variation, providing a rich resource to make inferences about natural selection and population history that have affected the current distribution of genetic diversity. In addition, when correlated with phenotypic traits, such data enables researchers to identify genomic regions underlying trait variation which is of particular importance for identifying genes involved in disease. By the end of the course, students will be able to understand how the genome is organized, learn how to find and assay genetic variation across the genome, and will know how such variation is inherited. They will learn how pedigree analysis, linkage mapping, and autozygosity mapping can be used to identify loci underlying Mendelian traits, and will be exposed to a number of examples from human disease. The students will also learn about the neutral and adaptive processes that shape genetic diversity within and across species, and will understand the basics of sequence alignment, phylogenetic reconstruction, and testing for natural selection from within and between species data. Moreover, students will acquire the fundamentals of quantitative genetics, will understand the essentials of polygenic adaptation, and will learn how to use genome-wide association studies to identify loci underlying complex traits. Finally, students will become familiar with recent advances in individual identification from genetic data, and its relationship to privacy.
Chromosomal mechanism of heredity; cytoplasmic and polygenic inheritance, chemical genetics, and experimental evolution. Prerequisites: BIOL 222 or BIOL 230W. Fall semester.
BIOL 427 or GEOSC 427: Evolution (3)
This course will study the theory of evolution and the different levels at which biological evolution can be examined ranging from macroevolution and the fossil record to microevolutionary processes at the population level. It will look at how genomes evolve from bacteria to multicellular organisms as well as the evolution of body plans in plants and animals and the molecular underpinnings of these developmental transitions. These concepts will be used to understand human evolution and learn how the genome revolution has shed light on evolutionary medicine. This course will be taught primarily in a lecture/discussion format. Students participate and lead discussions. A variety of field trips, guest lectures, and some films also illustrate the principles presented in the course. Prerequisites: (BIOL 220W and BIOL 230W) or (BIOL 220W and ENVST 200). Spring semester.
BIOL 429: Animal Behavior (3)
Physiological mechanisms, ecological relevance, and adaptive significance of animal behavior. Prerequisite: BIOL 110 or BIOL 220W. Alternate spring semesters.
BIOL 430: Developmental Biology (3)
Developmental Biology introduces students to one of the most complex and exciting areas of modern biology. This course will cover basic concepts using a comparative embryology approach and focus on molecular and genetic analysis of mechanisms involved in cell differentiation and organ development. Students will learn how studies of development in different model organisms including invertebrate and vertebrate species have identified a network of evolutionarily conserved genes and signaling pathways that regulate embryonic development and morphogenesis. Prerequisite: BIOL 230W (BIOL 222 recommended). Alternate spring semesters.
BIOL 435: Ecology of Lakes and Streams (3)
This course examines the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of freshwater systems. Attention is given to rivers, streams, groundwater, wetlands, ponds, and lakes and the biological communities that inhabit them. Special emphasis is put on the relationship between humans and freshwater and how humans negatively impact these systems. Prerequisite: BIOL 220W. Alternate fall semesters.
BIOL 439: Practical Bioinformatics (3)
This course focuses on practical aspects of molecular data analysis from searching biological databases to organizing and interpreting DNA sequence information. The course includes theoretical descriptions of computational biology methods, practical aspects of bioinformatics (with hands-on sessions), and application of bioinformatics to solve biological problems related to evolutionary, ecological, and disease aspects of genes and organisms. Prerequisite: Biology 230W. Alternate fall semesters.
BIOL 441: Plant Physiology (3)
Classical and current concepts in plant constituents, mineral nutrition, water relations, respiration, photosynthesis, photoperiodism, plant growth regulators, growth and development, and responses to the environment. Using these concepts, students will be able to explain how specific processes in a plant integrate with other relevant processes to determine the overall response of the plant to a particular set of conditions; describe how multiple plant biochemical pathways intersect and influence each other; describe how energy affects processes at all levels of biological organization from the molecule and cell to organisms and ecosystems; and be able to explain how plants perceive and respond to their environment, including signal transduction, intercellular communication, and information processing. As part of their work in this course, students will demonstrate an ability to read and discuss the scientific literature on plants and critically analyze current issues in plant physiology including impacts on human health, agricultural biotechnology, and bioenergy. Prerequisite: BIOL 230W and BIOL 240W. Alternate spring semesters.
BIOL 444W: Ecology of the Mid-Atlantic (3)
The focus will be understanding what are the general ecological components of the mid-Atlantic (aquatic, floral, faunal), what are its varied ecosystems (coastal, ridge and valley, Allegheny plateau), what affects those components and ecosystems, and what are the various management and conservation concerns---and some solutions, with emphasis on the vegetative components of the various ecosystems as the vegetation often serves as the main descriptor of an area. Prerequisite: BIOL 220W. Alternate spring semesters.
BIOL 450W: Experimental Field Biology (5)
The course involves the implementation of various field techniques and several out-of-class field trips, and also projects utilizing the temperate ecosystems in Central Pennsylvania. The course includes a common class project and requires individual research studies. Field techniques and data analyses are emphasized. This is a writing-intensive course; thus, a significant portion of the final grade will be based on students' written reports. Prerequisites: (BIOL 220W and BIOL 240W) or (BIOL 220W and ENVST 200). Alternate fall semesters.
BIOL 469: Neurobiology (3)
Students will acquire an understanding of basic neurobiology, the terminology of neuronal structures and functions, as well as experimental approaches designed to integrate the principles of neural cell biology, neurophysiology, neurochemistry, neuroendocrinology, neuropharmacology, genetics and molecular biology. The learning objectives of this course are to establish a working knowledge and understanding of: (I) the cellular structures, organelles and passive and active membrane properties important for neural function, (II) the neurotransmitters, receptors, ion channels and 2nd messenger systems underlying synaptic transmission and other forms of neural signaling, (III) the development of the nervous system including neurogenesis, neural maturation, apoptosis, synaptogenesis in both the developing and adult CNS, and (IV) the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Lastly, (V) the course will demonstrate applications of above knowledge to select complex diseases of the central nervous system. Prerequisite: BIOL 240W. Alternate spring semesters.
BIOL 472: Mammalian Physiology (3)
Biology 472 is covers the fundamentals of mammalian physiology for advanced undergraduate students. A working knowledge and understanding of basic physiological principles is developed and then used to explore the normal function of various organ systems and to analyze various abnormal situations that occur. These include respiratory disturbances, hypertension, heart failure, endocrine imbalances, neurological and muscular disorders. Prerequisite: BIOL 230W or BIOL 240W or (BIOL 141 and BIOL 142). Fall semester.
BIOL 473: Laboratory in Mammalian Physiology (2)
This course consists of laboratory experiments demonstrating fundamentals in physiology. Prerequisite or concurrent: BIOL 472. Fall semester.
BIOL 496: Independent Studies (1 -18)
BIOL 497: Special Topics (1 - 9)
SC 476: Human Dimensions of Health Care (3)
Health care from the point of view of patients, their families, and health care providers by on-site experience in family and community medicine settings. Pre-requisite: Permission of instructor. Fall semester.
MICRB 201: Introductory Microbiology (3)
Elementary principles of microbial and viral interrelationships, morphology, and physiology; relation to food, water, soil, industry, and disease processes. This course is designed for students in technical majors. Prerequisite: CHEM 110. Spring semester.
MICRB 203: Inquiry-based Microbiology Laboratory (2)
In this course, students learn the scientific method and important microbiological concepts and techniques by designing and executing experiments. Through a series of experimental modules, students will practice and hone their skills at formulating interesting questions, developing testable hypotheses, designing experiments, and analyzing results. Module topics will cover identification and characterization of microbes, interactions between microbes and their environment, pathogenesis, and microbial communities. At the end of the course, students will be prepared to participate in engaged scholarship opportunities, such as performing independent research. Qualitative and quantitative techniques with regard to recognition of bacteria and their processes on a microscopic, colonial, and physiological basis. Prerequisite or concurrent: MICRB 201. Spring semester.
ENVST 100: Visions of Nature (3) (GS)
An interdisciplinary introduction to environmental studies, including perspectives from ethics, economics, public policy, art, literature, history, geology, biology, and ecology. Fall and spring semester.
ENVST 200: Research Methods in Environmental Studies (3)
Focus on interdisciplinary research methodologies from biology, social sciences, and humanities for the study of environmental issues and problems. Prerequisite: BIOL 110, ENGL 015, ENVST 100 . Spring semester.
ENVST 296: Independent Studies (1-18)
ENVST 297: Special Topics (1-9)
ENVST 395: Internship (1-18)
Supervised off-campus, nongroup instruction including field experiences, practica, or internships. Written and oral critique of activity required. Prerequisite: prior approval of proposed assignment by instructor
ENVST 400W: Senior Seminar in Environmental Studies (3)
Writing-intensive study of a specified topic in environmental studies integrating approaches and research from a variety of disciplines. Prerequisite: ENVST 200
ENVST 496: Independent Studies (1-18)
BMB 401: General Biochemistry (3)
Principles of the structure and function of biological molecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, membranes, proteins, and enzymes. Overall, biochemistry describes, in chemical and molecular terms, the structures, mechanisms, and chemical processes at work in all living things, and abstracts organizing principles that underlie life in all its diverse forms. Building upon concepts introduced in molecular and cellular biology and in organic chemistry, students in BMB 401 synthesize and apply this knowledge toward understanding the structure and function of the major classes of cellular constituents: water, and the various macromolecules -- amino acids and proteins, sugars, and polysaccharides, nucleotides and nucleic acids, fatty acids and lipids, and membranes and various membrane proteins. Prerequisites: CHEM 210 and BIOL 230W (CHEM 212 recommended). Fall semester.
BMB 402: General Biochemistry 2 (3)
This course continues the exploration of biological molecules through a comprehensive survey of the pathways and regulation of intermediary metabolism. Building on BMB 401, this course will expand on the biochemical pathways that control everyday bodily functions, both when the body is healthy, and what goes wrong to create a diseased state. Prerequisite: BMB 401. Spring semester.
WFS 430: Conservation Biology (3)
The application of biological principles to issues in the conservation of biodiversity. The application of biological principles to issues in the conservation of biodiversity. FOR (W F S) 430 Conservation Biology (3) This course applies basic principles of ecology and genetics to issues regarding the conservation forested ecosystems and their associated fisheries and wildlife. The objective of this course is to provide a broad appreciation of the concepts in conservation biology that are important to solving contemporary natural resources problems. Students will be exposed to the history of conservation biology, values of biodiversity, definitions of species concepts, protecting the genetic structure of species, extinction as a natural process, vulnerability to extinction, biodiversity at the community, ecosystem, and landscape levels, habitat fragmentation, metapopulations, legal aspects of conservation, ecosystem management, exotic species, pollution, human population issues, measuring genetic diversity, attitudes towards nature, ex-situ conservation, and ecosystem restoration. Prerequisite: BIOL 220W. Alternate spring semesters.
WFS 450: Wetland Conservation (3)
Wetlands are unique ecosystems, differing in many ways from both terrestrial and aquatic environments. They provide recognized values and functions to society, although these values and functions remain difficult to quantify. The study of wetlands is interdisciplinary, requiring background knowledge in science, management and policy disciplines. This course will explore the variety of wetland types and functions, and emphasize the diverse hydrological, biological, chemical, and physical interactions that occur within wetlands. Because wetlands are recognized as valuable assets in the landscape, issues surrounding wetland management and regulation have taken on increased importance; we will address these issues as well. Topics will also include the restoration of degraded wetlands and wetland creation, along with the construction of wetlands for pollution abatement. Students will become familiar with different wetland types and how they are classified and will develop skills in understanding the interactions between wetland hydrology, hydric soils and hydrophytic vegetation. They will also develop an understanding of important national and state policies and regulations pertaining to wetlands and their protection and delineation. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. Alternate fall semesters.
VBSC 211: The Immune System and Disease (3) (GN)
Introduction to the immune system that emphasizes the immune response to infection and the consequences of a defective immune response. Spring semester.
The following courses may not be used for credit (not even as electives) toward a degree in biology and will not be counted toward graduation.
*BISC 001: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF ORGANISMS ( 3) (GN)
An exploration of cellular components and processes and their contribution to the structure and function of living organisms. Students who have passed BIOL 027, 110, or 141 may not schedule this course. (Generally offered every semester)
*BISC 002: Genetics, Ecology, and Evolution (3) (GN)
The study of how living organisms inherit their traits, how plants and animals evolved, and how they now interact. Students who have passed BIOL 133, 110, 220W, or 222 may not schedule this course. (Generally offered every semester)
*BISC 003: Environmental Science (3) (GN)
Kinds of environments; past and present uses and abuses of natural resources; disposal of human wastes; prospects for the future. Students who have passed BIOL 220W or any other upper-level ecology course in biology may not schedule this course. (Generally offered every semester)
*BISC 004: Human Body—Form and Function (3) (GN)
A general survey of structure and function--from conception, through growth and reproduction, to death. Students who have passed (BIOL 129 and 141) or (BIOL 161 and 163) may not schedule this course. (Generally offered every semester)
*MICRB 106: Elementary Microbiology (3) (GN)
Elementary microbiology is primarily a lecture-based course aimed at introducing students to the clinical and environmental impact of microorganisms. Topics will include the history of microbiology, microbial genetics, immunology, epidemiology, food microbiology, and medical microbiology. (3 credits) This course serves as a descriptive course for students not planning advanced study in microbiology. Both MICRB 106 and MICRB 107 must be completed to fulfill the general education (GN) requirement. (Generally offered every semester)
*MICRB 107: Elementary Microbiology Laboratory (1) (GN)
Elementary microbiology laboratory will introduce students to basic microbiological laboratory methods. Students will actively learn about microscopy, culture methods, and identification techniques. Other lab activities will examine the effects of chemical and physical agents on microorganisms; test various water sources for bacterial contamination; and survey clinical microbiological applications. (1 credit) Prerequisite or concurrent: MICRB 106. Both MICRB 106 and MICRB 107 must be completed to fulfill the general education (GN) requirement. (Generally offered every semester)