The Science building houses three chemistry laboratories used for general, inorganic, organic, analytical, physical, and environmental sciences. All laboratories are limited to a maximum of 24 students, each with their own workstation.
Our laboratories are equipped with both IBM and Mac computer carts, which contain 12 laptop computers each and are utilized as teaching tools in the laboratory. Data ports are available at each workstation for internet access or sharing of data among students and instructors. Each lab is equipped with an overhead projector and document camera.
Our faculty are involved in various research programs in their individual labs. Undergraduate students are strongly encouraged to participate in faculty-mentored research.
Chemistry Preparation Areas and Stockroom
In the Science Building between the two inorganic labs is housed a chemical prep area in which the Chemistry lab technician prepares solutions for the labs.
The Chemistry program has a variety of analytical instrumentation used for both classroom teaching and research.
UV-Vis Spectrophotometer (UV-Vis)
The Agilent Cary 300 UV-Vis spectrophotometer is a double beam, dual chopper, ratio recording, Czerny-Turner 0.28 monochromator UV-Vis spectrophotometer with double dispersion and a dual cell peltier (type SPV IXI). The spectrophotometer is centrally controlled by a PC with a Windows interface. High light throughput optical system with all-reflective optical design, high-speed accurate scanning. High-performance R928 photomultiplier tube, tungsten halogen visible source with quartz window, deuterium arc ultraviolet source.
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR)
The Thermo Scientific Nicolet iS10 FT-IR Spectrometer offers the highest confidence in materials identification and verification. Designed for a rugged, precise, and fast-paced operation, the Nicolet iS10 FT-IR Spectrometer simplifies laboratory data collection, combining advanced technology with easy operation for quality performance across technicians of any skill level. The spectrometer has a variable resolution from 64 to 0.4 cm-1, a 1 minute signal to noise of better than 35,000:1, and a high-performance deuterated triglycine sulfate detector (7800-350 cm-1). The source is a mid-infrared Ever-Glo that is replaceable from the sample compartment. It is equipped with a KBr/Ge mid-infrared optimized (7800-350 cm-1) beamsplitter. In addition, it is equipped with a Smart iTR with a diamond plate and a single reflection diamond with a ZnSe lens.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
Bruker DPX 300 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer (300 MHz FT-NMR). This instrument is interfaced with a PC and controlled by TopSpin. It is an extremely versatile instrument with a multinuclear probe and variable temperature capability. The instrument is configured with two complete channels and a deuterium lock. The NMR is equipped with either the Bruker 5 mm QNP probe, 1H, 13C, 15N, and 31P observation, decoupling on the same range of nuclei or the Bruker 5 mm BBI broadband inverse probe, 1H observation, decoupling of any chosen nuclei.
The Perkin Elmer LS 55 luminescence spectrometer allows measurement of fluorescence, phosphorescence, and chemiluminescence or bioluminescence of a liquid, solid, powder, or thin-film sample. The sample is illuminated in the wavelength range of 200 to 800 nm and the emission spectra recorded from 200 to 900 nm. The LS 55 uses a pulsed Xenon flash lamp (20 kW for 8 microseconds duration) as a source of excitation to minimize photobleaching of samples and provide a long-lived excitation source. Fluorescence data are collected at the instant of the flash while phosphorescence data are collected in the dark period between each flash. The use of the pulsed Xenon lamp circumvents the need for a mechanical means of chopping the excitation and emission beams, thus leading to improved precision and speed of analysis. Excitation and emission monochromators can be independently or synchronously scanned, while the Prescan mode is used for method development and locating peak excitation and emission maxima. The spectrophotometer features a variable slit and holographic gratings.
Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS)
The Varian CP-3800 GC equipped with the CP-8400 autosampler and Saturn 2200 ion trap mass spectrometer is used for separating and identifying organic compounds within a mixture of compounds. The autosampler provides maximum sample throughput with a standard 100 sample carousel for two mL vials.
The primary source of funding for the Varian CP-3800 GC came from the National Science Foundation, through the Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement program. Supplemental funding has also been provided by the Division of Mathematics and Natural Sciences at Penn State Altoona.
Flame/Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS)
Smith-Hieftje 12 (Thermo Jarrell Ash Corp. model 857) atomic absorption spectrophotometer with air-acetylene and NO2 acetylene flame systems (both 5 and 10 cm 1-slot burners). It also has the furnace atomizer (model 188) that can be used in place of the flame. We have a variety of hollow-cathode lamps for the trace detection of metals.
Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM)
The Hitachi S-4000 scanning electron microscope (SEM) is capable of imaging a wide range of materials. It has a magnification range of 20 X to 300,000 X, great depth of field, and resolution of a few nanometers that is unequaled by other forms of microscopy. The instrument has an electron gun with a cold field emission electron source, emission extraction of 0-7 kV, and accelerating voltage of 0.5 to 30 kV, with a two-stage electromagnetic lens, and a 4 position objective aperture. This increases the resolution of the SEM, and allows the use of lower accelerating voltages, which helps prevent beam damage and penetration, and reduces charging artifacts. A secondary electron detector is used for imaging the samples. The image appears on a CRT screen and collected digitally using the Quartz PCI digital imaging system.
Scanning Electron Microscope (LaB6 - SEM)
The Hitachi S-570LB scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a robust, relatively easy to use instrument capable of imaging a wide range of materials. It has a magnification range of ~10 X to 100,000 X, great depth of field, and resolution of a hundred nanometers that is unequaled by other forms of microscopy. Using a crystal of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) as the electron emitter instead of tungsten wire produces a brighter beam with a smaller sized electron source. A secondary electron detector is used for imaging the samples. The image appears on a CRT screen and collected digitally using the Quartz PCI digital imaging system.
The Leica MZ12.5 is a high-performance stereomicroscope with 12.5:1 zoom and magnifications up to 640x. The microscope has a 360-degree rotatable optics carrier, a field of view diameter of up to 33.3 mm, and a basic working distance of up to 135 mm. It also includes an integrated video camera and software for archiving and image processing.
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
Agilent 1260 Infinite high-performance liquid chromatography system. This instrument has a manual injector, a quaternary pump, a multiple-wavelength detector, and an OpenLAB CDS ChemStation and is used for separating organic compounds within a mixture of compounds.
- Raman Spectrometer (RamanSystems - PeakSeeker)
- UV chamber (Loctite Zeta 7401)
- Sputter Coater (Cressington 108 Auto/SE)
- Spectronic 20 visible spectrophotometers (20 units)
- Various analytical balances
- Drying oven
- Crushed ice maker